Science Essays

Lyme Disease
Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted inflammatory disorder characterized by an early focal skin lesion, and subsequently a growing red area on the skin (erythema chronicum migrans or ECM). The disorder may be followed weeks later by neurological, heart or joint abnormalities. Symptomatology ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The first symptom of Lym...

MDMA
MDMA Can there be a Relationship between Ecstasy and Memory in the Human Body? Target Article: Parrott, A.C & Lasky, J. (1998) Ecstasy (MDMA) effects upon mood and cognition: before, during and after a Saturday night dance. Psychopharmacology, 139, 261-268. Additional Article: Parrot, A.C., Lees, A., Garnham, N.J., Jones, M., & Wesnes, K. (1998). Cognitive performance in recreational users of MDMA of ‘ecstasy’: evidence for memory deficits. Journal of Psychopharm...

Mariculture
Mariculture Mariculture As the Spanish entered the capital city of Tenochtitlan they were astounded at the many marvels of the city but one of the things that most caught the eyes of the foreigners was the extensive plant growth on the lake surrounding the city. These images were describe the among the first recorded descriptions of large scale mariculture. Mariculture, or aquaculture, refers to the rearing of the aquatic organisms under controlled or semicontrolled condition...

Mechanical Energy
Mechanical Energy Have you ever wondered how a jet aircraft lifts its tremendous weight off the ground, or what gives a runner the stamina to reach the finish line in a race? In order to answer all these questions we must talk about the transformation of one sort of energy into another. The jet aircraft gets its power from jet turbines. These powerful jet engines create a high-pressure stream of very hot gases that push the aircraft forward as they leave the engine. This is...

Melatonin
Melatonin It seems as though every time we turn around there is a new health fad, be it a drug, herb or diet. Within the past 10 years the drug melatonin has hit the market and seems to have made quite a splash with the public and the media. At a time when an estimated thirty to forty million Americans suffer from serious sleep disorders that interfere with their sleep quality and health, many are desperate for an easy solution (Sleep Foundation 1). The media claims that this...

Membrane Physiology
Membrane Physiology Introduction The cell membrane is a fluid structure that is made up of phospholipids and proteins. Its main function is to allow osmosis and diffusion to occur in a cell. It protects a cell from taking in molecules that are too large and other chemicals that are not permeable without energy being used. The cell membrane is considered to be selectively permeable because it does not allow the non-fat soluble chemicals and the larger molecules in, but it d...

Mendel Biography
Mendel Biography In 1802 a farmer called Anton Mendel lived in mid-Czechoslovakia, in a small village called Hyncice. After being in the war, Anton built a house and farmed his forty acres of land: ploughing, cultivating and trying to improve his stock of farm animals. Anton was interested in fruit growing. There he would experiment with new varieties of fruit and exchange grafts and advice with the priest in nearby Vrazne. In 1818, Anton married Rosine, the daughter...

Microsurgery
Microsurgery A man came into the emergency ward at one o’clock. His thumb came in an hour later. The surgeon’s job: get them back together. The successful re-attaching of fingers to hand requires long hours of painstaking work in microsurgery. In the operating room , the surgeon doesn’t stand, but sits in a chair that supports her body. Her arm is cradled by a pillow. Scalpels are present as are other standard surgical tools, but the suture threads are...

Microwaves
Microwaves You might remember the heroic role that newly-invented radar played in the Second World War. People hailed it then as “Our Miracle Ally”. But even in its earliest years, as it was helping win the war, radar proved to be more than an expert enemy locator. Radar technicians, doodling away in their idle moments, found that they could focus a radar beam on a marshmallow and toast it. They also popped popcorn with it. Such was the beginning of mic...

Migraines
Migraines Migraine headaches are the result of a disturbance in the neurochemistry of the central nervous system. They are relatively common, affecting three times as many women as men. Migraine sufferers typically report a definite pattern to their headaches, and they can report what stimuli bring them on. Most migraine sufferers experience their first attack before the age of 20. There is no single cause of migraines, but the tendency to get migraines does tend to run in famil...

Military Aircraft
Military Aircraft Thesis: Military aircraft has become more sophisticated in variety, effectiveness in war situations, and special maneuvering techniques in recent years. Military aircraft has become more sophisticated in variety, effectiveness in war situations, and special maneuvering techniques in recent years. With the advance of stealth technology, many new and very effective aircraft have been developed. The F-117A was used during Operation Dessert Storm and eve...

Mining In Sapce
Mining In Sapce On December 10, 1986 the Greater New York Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the engineering section of the New York Academy of Sciences jointly presented a program on mining the planets. Speakers were Greg Maryniak of the Space Studies Institute (SSI) and Dr. Carl Peterson of the Mining and Excavation Research Institute of M.I.T. Maryniak spoke first and began b...

Mitosis
Mitosis Mitosis is the process of asexual reproduction. Humans use meosis which is a process of sexual reproduction.Mitosis is the process of asexual reproduction. Humans use meosis which is a process of sexual reproduction.Mitosis is the process of asexual reproduction. Humans use meosis which is a process of sexual rMitosis is the process of asexual reproduction. Humans use meosis which is a process of sexual reproduction.eproduction.Mitosis is the process of asexual reproduct...

History of Computers in America
History of Computers in America Only once in a lifetime will a new invention come about to touch every aspect of our lives. Such a device that changes the way we work, live, and play is a special one, indeed. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business in the U.S. and one out of every two households. This incredible invention is the computer. The electronic computer has been around for over a half-century, but its ancestors have been around for ...

Holograms
Holograms Toss a pebble in a pond -see the ripples? Now drop two pebbles close together. Look at what happens when the two sets of waves combine -you get a new wave! When a crest and a trough meet, they cancel out and the water goes flat. When two crests meet, they produce one, bigger crest. When two troughs collide, they make a single, deeper trough. Believe it or not, you’ve just found a key to understanding how a hologram work...

Home Technology
Home Technology The Toilet Yes…those tales you’ve heard are true. The toilet was first patented in England in 1775, invented by one Thomas Crapper, but the extraordinary automatic device called the flush toilet has been around for a long time. Leonardo Da Vinci in the 1400’s designed one that worked, at least on paper, and Queen Elizabeth I reputably had one in her palace in Richmond in 1556, complete with flushing and overflow pipes, a bowl valve and a...

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy
How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Respiration: How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy 1. A cell must work just to maintain its complex structure, for order is intrinsically unstable. Because of entropy (the second law of thermodynamics), which states that any enclosed system tends toward disorganization, cells must constantly use energy to keep themselves in order. If the cell was to stop using energy and let itself go then it would eventually get so disorganized that it wouldn...

How Temperature can Affect the Rate of Reaction
How Temperature can Affect the Rate of Reaction The Problem: I am going to find out how temperature can affect the rate of reaction. Background information: Factors that change the rates of reactions are: · Temperature – an increase in temperature will make the reaction occur faster. This happens because the particles of that substance move faster when it is heated. Because the particles move faster, they would collide more, making the reaction rate faster. · Concentrati...

Human Cloning 1
Human Cloning In his column, A. Arif Husain ‘97 [”Critics of Cloning Can’t Accept Change,” March 21] argues that President Clinton’s decision to ban research on human cloning is a case of uninformed governmental meddling and obstruction of scientific research. Husain believes that fears of human cloning are founded in ignorance and an archaic fear of new developments in science. Upon more careful evaluation of the issue, however, a different picture...

Human Disease and Their Control
Human Disease and Their Control Biology (B3A) Assignment Human Disease and Their Control follow up questions 1a) When people refer to pathogens, they are talking about bacteria that cause disease. 1b)The toxins actually excreted by the pathogens are the main cause of diseases although thetoxins are only by-products of the pathogen’s metabolism. 2a)In most cases, the toxins excreted by the pathogens find there way into the circulatory system. Thus, sometimes, the infecti...

Human Vision In Space
Human Vision In Space Human visual hardware is a result of a billion years of evolution within the earths atmosphere where light is scattered by molecules of air, moisture, particular matter etc. However as we ascend into our atmosphere with decrease density, light distribution is changed resulting in our visual hardware receiving visual data in different format. Some Aspects to Consider: 1. Visual acuity is the degree to which the details and contours of objects are per...

Huntingtons Disease
Huntingtons Disease Huntington’s Background Huntington’s disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease that gives rise to progressive, elective (localized) neural cell death associated with choreic movements (uncontrollable movements of the arms, legs, and face) and dementia. It is one of the more common inherited brain disorders. About 25,000 Americans have it and another 60,000 or so will carry the defective gene and will d...

Hurricanes 2
Hurricanes 2 Hurricanes A natural hazard is when extreme events which cause great loss of life and or property and create severe disruption to human lives, such as a hurricane. Editor Philip Whitefield brings up an important point in ‘ Our Mysterious Planet’ when he comments; ‘At a time when we know how to aim a space probe directly at Mars and trigger the gigantic forces of nuclear power, we are still at the mercy of hurricanes and volcanoes.’ It seems peculiar ...

Hurricanes
Hurricanes Hurricanes get their start over the warm tropical waters of the North Atlantic Ocean near the equator. Most hurricanes appear in late summer or early fall, when sea temperatures are at their highest. The warm waters heats the air above it, and the updrafts of warm, moist air begin to rise. Day after day the fluffy cumuli form atop the updrafts. But the cloud tops rarely rise higher than about 6,000 feet. At that height in the tropics, there is usually a layer...

Hydrogen as Gasoline Alternative
Hydrogen as Gasoline Alternative Why are we as Americans so afraid to change? Even if it is a change for the better? The world has been using oil coal and other petroleum products to power just about everything that moves for the last 150 years. Yet most cars in the United States only get 10-20 miles a gallon and even the “good” ones can get only a petty 20-50 miles a gallon. So why do we put up with the inefficiency when there are far better alternatives out there? ...