History Essays

Rise of Democracy in South America
Rise of Democracy in South America South America is a land of different cultures and has a history of as many different types of government, mostly dictatorships. Most of South America won independence from Spain and Portugal between 1810 and 1824. In 1823, President James Monroe enunciated the first US policy on Latin America. The Monroe Doctrine warned European nations against interfering in the affairs of independent nations in the Western Hemisphere. In 1904, Roosevelt's...

Brief Look at the Code of Hammurabi
Brief Look at the Code of Hammurabi In his position as King of Babylonia, Hammurabi managed to organize the world's first code of laws and establish Babylon as the dominant and successful Amorite city of its time. "Records written on clay tablets show that Hammurabi was a very capable administrator and a successful warrior. His rule spanned from 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C. When he became king in 1792, he was still young, but had already become entrusted with many official duties i...

Pearl Harbor - Brief Look
Pearl Harbor - Brief Look On December 7, 1941 the U.S. troops stationed on the island of Pearl Harbor were not waken up by the familiar sound of a bugle but instead by gunfire and explosions. This is what it might have been like if you were one of the troops at Pearl Harbor. This attack was important because it led to other events in World War II. Some of these events were America's involvement in the war and the dropping of the Atom Bomb at Hiroshima. Between the years of ...

Great Chinese Inventions
Great Chinese Inventions The World is forever in debt to China for its innovations. Ancient China was extreme advance and many of its discoveries are still in use today. This is what Robert Temple, the author of The Genius of China 3000 years of science, discovery and invention. The book is based on 11 main parts of Chinese innovation. Within these 11 categories, there are 3 main parts that contain the most significant inventions. Robert Temple concentrates the bulk of his ex...

The Roots of Communist China
The Roots of Communist China To say that the Chinese Communist revolution is a non-Western revolution is more than a clich‚. That revolution has been primarily directed, not like the French Revolution but against alien Western influences that approached the level of domination and drastically altered China's traditional relationship with the world. Hence the Chinese Communist attitude toward China's traditional past is selectively critical, but by no means totally hostile. Th...

Chinese Economic Reform
Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China's leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China's premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produ...

Brief Look at Benito Mussolini
Brief Look at Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883 in Predappio. The son of a blacksmith he was largely self-educated. He became a schoolteacher and a socialist journalist in northern Italy. In 1910 he married Rachele Guidi who bore his five children. Mussolini was jailed in 1911 for his opposition to Italy’s war in Libya. Soon after his release in 1912 he became editor of the socialist newspaper in Milan, “Avanti!”. When WWI began in 1914...

Analysis of the Hundred Years War
Analysis of the Hundred Years War The definition of the Golden Rule is that those with the gold make the rules. In other words, those with the gold have the power as well as those with the power have the gold. History books will discuss the general reasons for war such as freedom from adversity or freedom from religion. But the real issue for any war is the thirst for power and control; and the means to finance them are the economic issues. Nations will endure y...

Otto von Bismarck and his Policies
Otto von Bismarck and his Policies Otto von Bismarck or Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince von Bismarck, Count von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke von Lauenburg--was a Prussian statesman who in 1871 founded the German Empire and served as its first chancellor for 19 years. Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades. But in domestic policies his patrimony was ...

The Crusades
The Crusades The Crusades The 11th century brought good things to the Eastern Mediterranean. There were generally no immense problems to deal with, as everything was in a very tranquil state. The people who lived there went with the flow, but what they did not know is that they would soon be part of a turning point in religious history. A large group of Christians formed a small military which was called the Crusad...

Biography of Julius Caesar
Biography of Julius Caesar Julius Caesar was a strong leader for the Romans who changed the course of the history of the Greco - Roman world decisively and irreversibly. With his courage and strength he created a strong empire. What happened during his early political career? How did he become such a strong dictator of the Roman Empire? What events led up to the making of the first triumvirate? How did he rise over the other two in the triumvirate and why did he choose ...

World War I - Treaty of Versailles
World War I - Treaty of Versailles In the peace settlement Germany was forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. This was a totally justifiable demand on the part of the victorious powers. The Treaty of Versailles was enacted into history in June 1919 with Germany forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. Since then there has been considerable debate concerning the war but even today historians still cannot fully agree upon the c...

Analysis of the Chernobyl Meltdown
Analysis of the Chernobyl Meltdown On April 1986, Soviet's Union Chernobyl nuclear plant exploded letting out a massive amount of radiation that would debate of all Russian citizens for hundreds of years to come. At exactly 1:21 am. on April, 1986 inChernobyl, a city near the Pripiat River the No. 4 reactor exploded and released thirty to forty times the radiation of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombing. The exact causes of the explosion are not known , however scientists and r...

Global Effects of World War I
Global Effects of World War I "Everywhere in the world was heard the sound of things breaking." Advanced European societies could not support long wars or so many thought prior to World War I. They were right in a way. The societies could not support a long war unchanged. The First World War left no aspect of European civilization untouched as pre-war governments were transformed to fight total war. The war metamorphed Europe socially, politicaly, economically, and inte...

Effects of the P-51 in World War II
Effects of the P-51 in World War II Abstract This paper deals with the contributions of the P-51 Mustang to the eventual victory of the Allies in Europe during World War II. It describes the war scene in Europe before the P-51 was introduced, traces the development of the fighter, its advantages, and the abilities it was able to contribute to the Allies' arsenal. It concludes with the effect that the P-51 had on German air superiority, and how it led the destruction of the...

The Crusades
The Crusades The crusades were military expeditions launched against the Muslims by the Christians in an attempt to regain the Holy Land. They took place between 1095 A.D. and 1270 A.D. It was one of the most violent periods in the history of mankind. The starting point of the crusades was on November 18, 1095 A.D. when Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. On November 27, outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand, the Pope made an important speech . He ca...

Psychological Effects of the Holocaust
Psychological Effects of the Holocaust The Holocaust was a tragic point in history which many people believe never happened. Others who survived it thought it should never have been. Not only did this affect the people who lived through it, it also affected everyone who was connected to those fortunate individuals who survived. The survivors were lucky to have made it but there are times when their memories and flashbacks have made them wish they were the ones who died i...

Rise of Superpowers After WWII
Rise of Superpowers After WWII It is often wondered how the superpowers achieved their position of dominance. It seems that the maturing of the two superpowers, Russia and the United States, can be traced to World War II. To be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense international political power and, related to this, a strong national ideology. It was this war, and its results, that caused each of these superpowers to experi...

Famous People of the Civil War
Famous People of the Civil War Ullysses S. Grant Ulysses Simpson Grant served effectively with Zachary Taylor's army at Monterey during the Mexican war. Right when the war began Grant obtained a position on the staff of General George McClellan. During the war he showed courage in both physically and morally manners. In February 1862 Grant captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson with help from the Federal navy. In October he was appointed commander of the Department of Tennessee...

Black Soldiers in the Civil War
Black Soldiers in the Civil War During the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and part of the Nineteenth Century the White people of North America used the Black people of Africa as slaves to benefit their interests. White people created a climate of superiority of their race over the Black African race that in some places, still lingers on today. The American Civil War however, was a key turning point for the Black African race. Through their actions and the political actions of Presid...

History of the Conflict in the Balkans
History of the Conflict in the Balkans The conflict in the Balkans is interesting because for years, reporters and politicians have touted it as being the result of ancient ethnic hatred but that isn’t the case. The people of the region lived together peacefully for centuries and any conflicts that have arose among people were based not on ethnic origin but other things like class, ruling party, etc. In fact, any problems that have arose in the former Yugoslavia have more...

From Communism to Democracy
From Communism to Democracy Gradualism is naturally the most feasible approach to any situation. Since the fall of the iron curtain, these two Communist power houses have chose to move towards democracy. China has chosen to take the natural, more gradual approach to democracy where as Russia has chosen the fast-paced, more dangerous approach. These two nations have chosen to change their economies from a collectivized command one to a market oriented one in order to incr...

Egyptian Pyramids
Egyptian Pyramids When most people mention Ancient Egypt the first thing that comes to mind is the Pyramids. To construct such monuments required a mastery of art, architecture and social organization that few cultures would ever rival. The pyramids are said to have built Egypt by being the force that knit together the kingdom's economy. Their creations were so substantial, that the sight of these vast pyramids would take your breath away. Today, the valley of the Nile ...

Arab-Israeli Conflicts
Arab-Israeli Conflicts Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The fi...

Kurds - A People Without a State
Kurds - A People Without a State Introduction Of all the ethnic groups in the world, the Kurds are one of the largest that has no state to call their own. According to historian William Westermann, "The Kurds can present a better claim to race purity...than any people which now inhabits Europe." (Bonner, p. 63, 1992) Over the past hundred years, the desire for an independent Kurdish state has created conflicts mainly with the Turkish and Iraqi populations in the areas wher...